Microsoft Word Right Vertical Zhuyin Tone Mark Workaround マイクロソフト・ワード右縦寄せ注音声調記号ワークアラウンド

Introduction 紹介
To keep myself occupied during the pandemic, I have been reading and translating kanbun 漢文 and kanshi 漢詩. These refer to texts and poetry written in Classical Chinese. Sometimes these Classical Chinese texts were even written by Japanese authors. Following academic tradition, when I translate these texts to English, I render proper nouns into Hanyu Pinyin. Therefore, I would render 蓬莱 as Pénglái or Penglai rather than Hōrai. When I encountered a proper noun while reading a Classical Chinese text, to remind myself of the Chinese reading for my translation, I originally would gloss the character with Pinyin. For horizontal texts, Pinyin is quite easy to read as it follows the same text orientation of the Latin alphabet, e.g. (zhī). But as Classical Chinese is traditionally written vertically, Pinyin can be quite difficult to read. One can write the Pinyin gloss vertically without rotation (zhī) or rotated 90 degrees (zhī). I find both formats quite cumbersome to read. Therefore, I began to use Zhuyin Fuhao 注音符号.


Zhuyin Fuhao 注音符号
Zhuyin Fuhao, also known as Bopomofo or Zhuyin, is a transliteration system for Mandarin Chinese. In 1912 the government of the Republic of China established the Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, an organization to standardize Mandarin pronunciation and create a Mandarin phonetic system. The system they created, Zhuyin, was used in mainland China until 1958, when Hanyu Pinyin became the official transliteration system of the People’s Republic of China. However, Zhuyin continues to be used in Taiwan for teaching Mandarin pronunciation.


As for the actual system itself, each Zhuyin character represents either a Mandarin initial, or a medial/final. For example, the Zhuyin character ㄇ is the initial /m/ while the Zhuyin character ㄚ is the final /a/. Therefore, the reading of 媽, /ma/, is written in Zhuyin as ㄇㄚ. Here is a chart of Zhuyin characters with their Pinyin and IPA equivalents.



Zhuyin is flexible because it can be written both vertically and horizontally. For example, one can gloss 媽 as ㄇㄚ in horizontal writing and ㄇㄚ in vertical writing. Zhuyin can be considered analogous to katakana, because not only are the characters used for phonetic transcription, but they also originate from Chinese characters. For example, the Zhuyin character ㄖ comes from the Chinese character 日 and the Zhuyin character ㄓ comes from the Chinese character 之.


(I would like to have discussed the promulgation and origin of the Zhuyin characters more in-depth, but I encountered much difficulty in finding primary sources on the creation of Zhuyin and its adoption in the early 20th century. Maybe I will return to this one day.)


I saved the discussion of Zhuyin tones for last because it is the most relevant to this article and thus requires a more in-depth discussion. To indicate tone in Zhuyin four tone markers are utilized. They are as follows.


Tone 声調
1Omitted 省かれた

According to The Manual of the Phonetic Symbols of Mandarin Chinese by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China, “Marks of the four tones should be noted at the upper-right corner of Bopomofo in both portrait and landscape text.



However, “The mark of neutral tone should be
   a. Noted on the top of Bopomofo in portrait text. For example:
   a. 縦書きでボポモフォの上に記すものとする。例えば

   b. Noted at the very front of Bopomofo in landscape text. For example:
   b. 横書きでボポモフォの最初に記すものとする。例えば

Using Microsoft Word to Gloss Chinese Characters マイクロソフト・ワードで漢字に注音を振る方法
So now that we have a basic understanding of Zhuyin, let’s talk about how I ended up finding this problem in the first place. In addition to kanbun and kanshi, I also have been reading Classical Chinese poems aloud in Mandarin. However, because I find memorizing tones to be quite difficult, I prefer to gloss every single word. Originally, I would gloss them manually, but soon I found that Microsoft Word could do this for me.


Now I’m going to discuss how to install Zhuyin support for Microsoft Word. Because Microsoft Office and Windows are frequently being updated, the process to set up Zhuyin glossing for you may be different than what I will describe. If you are having difficulty, please leave a comment and I will try my best to help.


Microsoft Office does not have any Chinese character dictionary itself, so to provide one you need to install the Windows Chinese (Traditional, Taiwan) language pack. To do such, open Word, click on Review, then Language, then Language Preferences, and Install additional keyboards from Windows Settings. From there, press Add a language, and select Chinese (Traditional, Taiwan).








After that finishes installing, you need to install the Traditional Chinese Language Pack for Office. You can do this by opening Word, clicking on Review, then Language, then Language Preferences, and finally Install additional display languages from From that list choose Chinese (Traditional) and run the file from to install the language pack.



インストールを終えた後、「オフィス用中国語 (繁体字)パック」をインストールする必要がある。インストールするために、ワードの「校閲」をクリックし、「言語」をクリックし、「言語の設定」をクリックして、「Office.comから追加の表示言語をインストール」をクリックする。その表から「中国語 (繁体字)」を選んで、Office.comからファイルを実行する。



Now that that is installed, let’s try to gloss some characters. First, copy and paste some Chinese characters into Microsoft Word. If Word does not automatically set the proofreading language to Chinese (Taiwan), then do such manually by highlighting the text, click Review, then Language, and then Set Proofreading Language. From there select Chinese (Taiwan) and hit Ok.




Now finally, highlight the text and click the Phonetic Guide button.




Thereupon this menu will open.




Word is now using Windows’ Zhuyin dictionary to easily gloss the text for you. From my experience, Word is even pretty good at glossing Chinese characters with multiple Mandarin readings, known as duōyīnzì 多音字 or pòyīnzì 破音字, based on the context of the sentence. The only downside is that this method cannot gloss more than about 30 characters at a time, so it is necessary to click the Phonetic Guide button for each sentence.


So let’s look at how Word glosses Li Bai’s 李白 8th century poem Quiet Night Thought 靜夜思.
Please note that the text orientation is currently horizontal. The first line is 床前明月光.



Overall, this glossing is pretty good in my opinion. I would note that the tone marks are a little high, but that’s just a nitpick. As for the readings themselves, they are also pretty good. Word was able to correctly gloss the duōyīnzì 地 and 頭. The only point of contention is 地上. While I have seen this word glossed as ㄉㄧˋㄕㄤ ˋ(dìshàng) in some sources, the more contemporary pronunciation is ㄉㄧˋ˙ㄕㄤ (dìshang). You can modify the gloss by highlighting the text and pressing Phonetic Guide again.

大抵上手く、注音を振ったと思う。声調記号が少し高すぎるが、まあいいだろう。候補に出てきた北京語の読みもいいと思う。ワードは多音字の「地」と「頭」に正しい読みの注音を振った。問題の一つは「地上」である。この言葉の読みは「ㄉㄧˋㄕㄤ ˋ」(dìshàng)と振られたが、より現代的なの読みは「ㄉㄧˋ˙ㄕㄤ」(dìshang)である。読みを変えるためにテキストをハイライトして、もう一度「ルビ」をクリックする。

After changing the gloss of 地上, here is the result.


But while this looks good, I would argue that Pinyin should be the preferred phonetic guide system of horizontal text, on the basis of how widespread it is. The only reason I am even interested in using Zhuyin is because of the awkwardness of using Pinyin with a vertical text orientation. (That’s also why I will not be commenting on the strange glitches Word has in rendering horizontal Zhuyin). So, let’s change the text orientation to Vertical and see how it affects the Zhuyin. You can change the text direction by going to Layout, and then Text Direction.




This yields


For those unfamiliar with Chinese, you may not notice the difference at first, but compare the Zhuyin in the vertically oriented text to that of the horizontally oriented text. You may notice that the tone of 床 appears to be 4th tone in the vertical text and 2nd tone in the horizontal text. Looking at 舉 reveals the problem: the Zhuyin tone marks are rotated 90 degrees in vertical text orientation. Looking at old Microsoft Community Forums, this bug has existed in Word for a long time. I imagine this is because the user base who would use this feature is so small that there’s little demand to correct it, even if the change in code to do such would likely be quite small. I could get over the tone marks being a tad too high, but the fact that the rotated 4th tone mark looks like the standard 2nd tone mark, and vice versa, is simply unacceptable.


I tried to find some way to fix this bug, but in short of patching Word, I do not think this bug can be fixed by a user. However, I have created some workarounds to this problem which have decent results.


These workarounds come in the form of macros. A macro is a sequence of inputtable computer instructions. For example, there can be a macro that capitalizes the name of every file in a folder. While a human could manually go through each file and capitalize its name, a macro can save time by doing this task automatically. Microsoft Office macros are written in a programing language called Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). I should note that Office macros have been used as a vector to send computer viruses before, so one should always take caution when enabling or running Office macros of an unknown source. To create a macro in Word, go to View then Macros.


このワークアラウンドはマクロである。マクロとはインプットできる命令の順序である。例えば、パソコンでいうと、フォルダーの中にあるファイルの名前の頭文字を大文字にするマクロを作れる。人は手動で各ファイルの名前の頭文字を大文字にすることができるけれど、マクロは自動で頭文字を大文字にすることを可能にするため、使い手の手間が省ける。マイクロソフト・オフィスのマクロはビジュアルベーシック・フォー・アプリケーションズ(Visual Basic for ApplicationsあるいはVBA)というプログラミング言語で書かれた。オフィスのマクロを使う前に、注意するべきことがある。オフィスのマクロを実行すると、ウィルスをもらうことがある。だから起源不明なオフィスのマクロを実行する時には、注意する必要がある。マクロを作るために、ワードで「表示」をクリックし、そして「マクロ」をクリックする。


Then name your macro and then press Create.




This will cause a window titled Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications to open. In this window there will be a text box, and in that text box, you paste the code for your macro.

するとMicrosoft Visual Basic for Applicationsというウィンドウが開かれる。このウィンドウにあるテキストボックスにマクロのコードを貼り付ける。


To run your macro, go to the Macros menu again, select the macro you want, and hit Run.




Before we begin discussing the macros, I would like to note that my macros involve replacing all instances of certain text sequences. While possible to undo the macro’s changes using the standard Word undo button, you will need to press undo for each replaced sequence, which can be very cumbersome. So, I recommend backing up your original text before running any of these macros, especially when you are not exactly sure which macro would best suit your needs.


So, without further ado, let’s get macroing.

Workaround #1: Reverse Tones 2 and 4 ワークアラウンド#1:第二声記号と第四声記号を交換
As I said before, the most egregious problem of having the rotated tone marks is that the rotated 2nd tone mark looks like the standard 4th tone mark and vice versa. While the 3rd tone mark looks unappealing, at least there is no confusion in what it is. Therefore, the simplest solution is to change the 2nd tone marks into 4th tone marks and the 4th tone marks into 2nd tone marks. To do this
   1. I replace all 2nd tone marks (U+02CA) with the string “UPTONE”
   2. I replace all 4th tone marks (U+02CB) with 2nd tone marks
   3. I replace all instances of the string “UPTONE” with 4th tone marks

   1. すべての第二声記号(U+02CA)を「UPTONE」という文字列とする
   2. すべての第四声記号(U+02CB)を第二声記号とする
   3. すべての 「UPTONE」という文字列を第四声記号(U+02CB)とする

Keep in mind that if your document has the string “UPTONE” in it, that string will be changed into a 4th tone mark. Also, in case you do not like the results, running this macro again will revert the tones to their original form. This macro also runs very quickly because it only needs to search the document three times.


The output of this macro is


The code for this macro is

Sub ReverseTones_Bopomofo()
Dim rngStory As Range
For Each rngStory In ActiveDocument.StoryRanges
With rngStory.Find
.Text = ChrW(714)
.Replacement.Text = "UPTONE"
.Wrap = wdFindContinue
.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
End With
With rngStory.Find
.Text = ChrW(715)
.Replacement.Text = ChrW(714)
.Wrap = wdFindContinue
.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
End With
With rngStory.Find
.Text = "UPTONE"
.Replacement.Text = ChrW(715)
.Wrap = wdFindContinue
.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
End With
Next rngStory
End Sub

While not perfect, someone with a rudimentary understanding of Zhuyin tone marks should have no difficulty in identifying the tone of the glossed character. But even if understandable, the rotated 3rd tone mark still does not conform to the Zhuyin standard. The quest to properly rotate the 3rd tone mark led me to Workaround #2.


Workaround #2: Use Combining Characters ワークアラウンド#2:結合文字の使用
Without going into character encoding too much, a Combining Character is a diacritic that combines with another character. For example, the combining character ◌̅ (U+0305) can combine with ‘e’ to create e̅. These contrast with Spacing Modifier Letters, the type of independent characters which the Zhuyin tone marks are. And fortunately, when the combining characters ◌̀ (U+0300), ◌́ (U+0301), and ◌͐ (U+0350) are rotated 90 degrees, they look very similar to the Zhuyin 2nd, 4th, and 3rd tone marks respectively.


But to which characters will these Combining Characters combine? For the output most accurate to the Zhuyin standard, they should combine with the final Zhuyin character. The simplest way to do this is to look for every combination of Zhuyin final and Zhuyin tone mark. This means that the entire document needs to be searched sixty-nine times. Therefore, this macro can take some time to run.


The output for this macro is


The code for this macro is

Sub Vertical_Bopomofo()
Dim rngStory As Range
For zhuyinchar = 12563 To 12585
For Each rngStory In ActiveDocument.StoryRanges
With rngStory.Find
.Text = ChrW(zhuyinchar) & ChrW(714)
.Replacement.Text = ChrW(832) & ChrW(zhuyinchar)
.Wrap = wdFindContinue
.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
End With
With rngStory.Find
.Text = ChrW(zhuyinchar) & ChrW(715)
.Replacement.Text = ChrW(833) & ChrW(zhuyinchar)
.Wrap = wdFindContinue
.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
End With
With rngStory.Find
.Text = ChrW(zhuyinchar) & ChrW(711)
.Replacement.Text = ChrW(848) & ChrW(zhuyinchar)
.Wrap = wdFindContinue
.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
End With
Next rngStory
End Sub

I like how the lines are much closer together than when using Spacing Modifier Letters, but unfortunately this leads to the tone marks occasionally being quite difficult to see. For example the tone mark on 是 can be easy to miss, especially if one prints out the page. On top of this, there is the quite lengthy search process. To combat a few of these issues I present Workaround #3.


Workaround #3: Use Combining Characters after the Final ワークアラウンド#3:声母後における結合文字の使用
To help alleviate the problems of the second macro, difficulty in seeing the tone marks and how long it needs to run, I created my third macro. This macro uses Combining Characters, but instead of attaching them to the Zhuyin final, they are instead attached to a whitespace character (U+0020) which is appended after the final. This macro only searches the document three times, so it is quite fast.


This macro results in


The code for this macro is

Sub Vertical_ModifyLast_Bopomofo()
Dim rngStory As Range
For Each rngStory In ActiveDocument.StoryRanges
With rngStory.Find
.Text = ChrW(714)
.Replacement.Text = ChrW(832) + " "
.Wrap = wdFindContinue
.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
End With
With rngStory.Find
.Text = ChrW(715)
.Replacement.Text = ChrW(833) + " "
.Wrap = wdFindContinue
.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
End With
With rngStory.Find
.Text = ChrW(711)
.Replacement.Text = ChrW(848) + " "
.Wrap = wdFindContinue
.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
End With
Next rngStory
End Sub

I don’t think this macro completely resolves the difficulty in seeing the tone marks, for example 床, but for other characters, like 是, it does help.


Conclusion 結論
At the end of the day, these macros are only workarounds to the problem. If you want true Zhuyin support, you are likely better off using another program rather than Microsoft Word. However, if you just need basic vertical Zhuyin support, I think my macros make Word an option. They may not have the cleanest execution, but at least their results do adhere to the Zhuyin standard. I also would like to note that I have very limited experience in VBA, so I am sure that there is some way to make this code more efficient or the output more presentable. If you have any suggestions, please leave a comment. Also, if you are interested in getting this bug fixed, feel free to leave feedback within Microsoft Word (Help, Feedback, and then I don’t like something) and also upvote this UserVoice suggestion.




I am pessimistic that this issue will be resolved because it affects so few people, but because I imagine the fix to be quite simple, who knows, maybe we’ll get lucky.


HIME-sama (Hentaigana Input Method Editor 変体仮名インプットメソッド)

While I was doing research for my last article, I wanted to make a small dictionary of the hentaigana I encountered in On'in Kanayōrei to speed up my reading. I put all hentaigana of one page in red boxes to show the extent of how often they were used.


Shirai Hentaigana

To type out the hentaigana for the dictionary, I booted up my program Convert Kana to Hentaigana which I introduced in a previous article and saw this.


Bad Kana to Hentaigana

Apparently, some recent Windows updates for the Japanese IME broke my program. So, I decided it was time for an update. The main difference between the original and the update is that now the program uses a rōmaji input rather than kana. This is to ensure that the program would not break again with future Windows updates. I also decided to change the name from the clunky Convert Kana to Hentaigana to Hentaigana Input Method Editor, or HIME-sama for short (pronounced hee-meh-sah-mah). For an example of how to use it, below is the hentaigana iroha poem followed by how one would type it using HIME-sama.

どうやら、ウィンドウズによる最新の日本語インプットメソッドのアップデートは私のプログラムを壊した。そして私はそのプログラムを改良した。元のプログラムと新たなプログラムの大きな違いは、プログラムは仮名のかわりにローマ字の入力を使うことだ。この変更は、将来のウィンドウズによるアップデートが再び私のプログラムを壊さないことを保証している。また、プログラムの名前は奇妙な『正体仮名を変体仮名に転換できるプログラム』から『Hentaigana Input Method Editor』に変更した。略してHIME-samaと言う(「姫様」と発音する)。使い方として例を挙げると、下には変体仮名いろは歌の写真とHIME-samaでその歌を入力した動画がある。



You can download HIME-sama from this MediaFire link. Also, if there is a specific feature you would like me to add, feel free to contact me, or edit it yourself. It really is a very simple program. And hopefully this simple program will be one of the steps to getting hentaigana more universally supported.


Read More 読み続ける

Reply to The Origin of Hiragana /wu/ 平仮名のわ行うの字源に対する新たな発見

Disclaimer 記事を読む前の重要事項
This article is a follow-up to my previous article The Origin of Hiragana /wu/; I highly recommend reading that article first to understand my previous theory and its context. However, there will also be a short summary of it in this article.


Introduction 紹介
I find myself in relaxing in a Korean spa. With the peace of the spa, I finally can reflect on my previous research. However, my heart starts racing as I begin to doubt my former conclusion. “Is it too big of an assumption that Katayama would derive his hentaigana from the same kanji?” While I didn’t let it bother me too much, this problem continued to float in my mind. A couple months later, as I was showing my theory to a professor, he was skeptical on the basis that the simplification I proposed had no precedent. After that, I decided it was time to reevaluate my theory and see if I could find any new evidence that either supports or disproves my original theory.


The Question 問題
For a quick summary, in 1873 Junkichi Katayama published Shōgaku Tsuzuriji Hen 小学綴字篇 wherein there is a hiragana gojūon chart with a /wu/ kana. This /wu/ hiragana is boxed in red.



During the Meiji era there were several orthographies which contained a hiragana /wu/; however, none of these contained Katayama’s hiragana /wu/. So naturally this begs the question, does Katayama’s hiragana /wu/ come from a kanji, and if so, which one? Answering this question is more important now than ever as there has been a proposal to encode this character into Unicode, and its origin character is included as a note.


Comments on The Origin of Hiragana /wu/ 『平仮名のわ行うの字源』の論評
In my previous article I claim that the origin character of hiragana /wu/ is 紆 because in the textbook there is also a hentaigana for /wu/ whose origin character is 紆, as seen below.



While there are a few things I would change in that article (such as making the tone less confirmatory), I am still pretty proud of it as my first article. I like to think that the recent influx of discussion on /wu/ kana is partially due to that article. However, I would like to lay out some of the implicit assumptions of that article to better convey its argument. The best candidate for the origin character of hiragana /wu/ would be the one that Katayama explicitly states it is. However, in the absence of that evidence the best candidate should have the following

   1. The character should be mentioned by Katayama indirectly
   2. The simplification of the origin character should have precedent

If no character has both of these than a character with (1) is a better than a candidate with (2). As 紆 was the only character Katayama indirectly mentions it naturally became the character I accepted as the origin. I still think this line of reasoning is the best for this situation, so I will retain it and increase the number of places I search for Katayama to indirectly mention the origin character.


   1. 片山が暗に述べている
   2. 字源の簡略化に前例がある


The Commentaries 附説
The two works I found that would become the basis for this new theory are the Shōgaku Tsuzuriji Hen Fusetsu Upper and Lower Volumes 小学綴字篇附説 巻之上・巻之下, written by Junkichi Katayama in 1873. These are appendixes to Shōgaku Tsuzuriji Hen. In the Upper Volume, Katayama explains his justification for extending kana to fit the gojūon chart. In the Lower Volume, Katayama explains how to teach using Shōgaku Tsuzuriji Hen.


Starting with the Upper Volume, the first thing to catch my eye was a chart with katakana characters next to their origin characters.



I couldn’t believe it; the character I proposed was right there! Now I only needed to find the hiragana chart... But as I was quick to learn, there was no such chart. I searched, and I searched, and I searched, but while the Upper Volume spoke extensively on the /wu/ katakana and its origins, there was nothing about the hiragana. At this point, while I didn’t receive the exact answer I wanted, I felt that this new document overall supported my theory, as it was now confirmed that 紆 was the origin character for the /wu/ katakana... and then I looked at the Lower Volume.


While the Upper Volume was primarily concerned with theory, the Lower Volume was concerned with praxis. The Lower Volume explained how to use the textbook day by day and had very little concerning the new sounds and their characters. But, in this volume, there was one peculiarity that would singlehandedly dismantle my entire theory.


Reference to 汙

In the red box, Katayama is explaining the pronunciation of the /we/ sound. He does so by saying this sound is a contraction of 汙 and 衣, which represent /wu/ and /e/ respectively. Customarily one would represent those sounds by using the origin characters of the consonant and vowel’s kana. This is seen by how every other boxed sound is represented by their katakana origin character. Why is it that Katayama would use 汙 to represent /wu/ over the katakana origin character 紆? To choose a random character of the same sound, over an origin character seems like a very strange decision, especially when the only justification I see for a change in character is just for some variety. I think using the origin character of hiragana /wu/ is much more reasonable, because at least then, Katayama could achieve some variety and still keep with the custom of using origin characters.


Previous Usage of 汙 as Man’yōgana万葉仮名として使われた汙
At this point, we have two candidates that are indirectly mentioned, 紆 and 汙. By the logic I laid out above, the character who has a precedent of simplifying to Katayama’s /wu/ hiragana is the best candidate for the origin character. Starting with 紆, by once again looking at Identifying Japanese Cursive Script by Marcus Sesko, we can clearly see that 紆 does not traditionally simplify to Katayama’s hiragana /wu/.

今までに、片山が暗に述べている候補は「紆」と「汙」だ。上で述べた方法に従うと、片山が選んだわ行うの平仮名の字源への一番の候補は、簡略化の前例がある漢字だ。始めに、マルクス・セス子の『草書の識別』Identifying Japanese Cursive Scriptを見ると、「紆」は片山が選んだわ行うの平仮名に簡略化しないと確認できる。


As for 汙, since it is not in Identifying Japanese Cursive Script, let’s look at its use as a man’yōgana in the Wooden Tablet Database by the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties. In Tablet 1 and Tablet 1806, the character 汙 is being used as a man’yōgana for the /u/ phoneme for personal names.



Clearly, these man’yōgana look identical to Katayama’s /wu/ hiragana. Therefore, only 汙 meets criteria 1 and 2 and thus is the most likely candidate to be the origin character of hiragana /wu/.


And while I knew this for quite some time and think the logic is sound, I still didn’t feel like there was enough evidence for this new theory. So now I would like to go back into the Edo period and try to figure out what led to the weird orthography of Junkichi Katayama.


Various Edo Orthographic Developments 色々な江戸の綴りの発展
Fortunately, the Upper Volume contained several references to Edo period works that discuss kanji readings and kana orthography. Here I will go through each one to establish a timeline.


Let’s go back to 1776, when Motōri Norinaga 本居宣長 wrote Jion Kanazukai 字音仮字用格. This work posits a traditional orthography based on Heian era pronunciation. For example, the character 草 has an on’yomi of さう while the character 走 had an on’yomi of そう. By the Edo period, these on’yomi were both pronounced as そう, but Norinaga’s orthography preserves this classical distinction. While this work wasn’t too influential directly on Katayama, it started getting Edo period scholars to reflect on orthography and ancient pronunciations.


In 1815, Zensai Ōda 太田全斎 wrote Kangōnzu 漢呉音図, wherein he provides the go-on and kan-on readings of kanji juxtaposed with their “original pronunciation” 原音, which is a reconstructed Japano-Chinese pronunciation of that character. How to read these squares is explained well in Katayama’s Lower Volume. Here are the squares for 汙 and 紆 followed by how to read them.


Oda 紆Oda 汙HowToReadYomizu.png

This work also contains a gojūon chart which utilizes 于 for /wu/.



As 于 is used in many subsequent orthographies to represent the phoneme /wu/, I believe that tradition can be traced directly back to this work (though perhaps it can be traced even further).


As for the next two references, they can be seen in the Upper Volume as the creators of the orthography which Katayama is using.



Before discussing Gimon Hōshi, I want to recap what I wrote about Hirokage Shirai 白井寛蔭 in the last article. Shirai is considered the founder of extended kana, as he was the first to designate kana for /yi/, /ye/, and /wu/ in his magnum opus On'in Kanayōrei 音韻仮字用例. I would like to juxtapose his orthography with Katayama’s. Their claimed origin characters are adjacent to the kana. Those that are different are highlighted.


Sound 音素Shirai Hiragana’s 白井の平仮名Katayama’s Hiragana 片山の平仮名Shirai’s Katakana 白井の片仮名Katayama’s Katakana 片山の片仮名
/i/い 伊イ 伊イ 伊
/e/え 衣〈 衣Japanese_Katakana_E.png
/ye/𛀏𛀁ye katakanaエ 廷
/u/𛀍ウ 宥ウ 宥
/wu/う 于wa-wu.png于 宇于 紆

As for the differences between the orthographies, I originally posited that Katayama simply chose more common kana. This is demonstrated by how he slightly modified the katakana for /e/ and /ye/, making them much more similar to the very common katakana エ. As noted in my previous article, several other Meiji orthographies also use the same kana as Katayama. Perhaps these kana were just popular in orthographic traditions? Or maybe these other orthographies were inspired by Katayama’s. But if the creators of those orthographies really were inspired by Katayama, why would none use his hiragana /wu/? As of right now, I don’t have a good answer to explain all of these orthographic variations, but in order to not overanalyze, I will assume that Katayama just opted to use more common kana in his orthography. However, this explanation does not explain why 汙 was chosen. Why would Katayama use a kana so obscure for hiragana /wu/? In Japanese, the kanji variant 汚 is much more prevalent than 汙. For the answer to that, I would like to turn to Gimon Hōshi.


Gimon Hōshi: The Final Piece to This Puzzle 義門法師:このパズルの最終のピース
Gimon Hōshi was a kokugaku scholar who lived from 1786 to 1843 and was also the only other named person whom Katayama accredits for his orthography. Gimon is probably most famous for Namashima 男信 wherein he distinguishes /mu/ む from the moraic nasal /-n/ ん. However, he also extensively studied orthography. As noted in Gimon Hōshi’s National Language Study 東条義門の国語学 by Jirō Kameda 龜田次郎, Gimon made a commentary to Norinaga’s Jion Kanazukai, which Shirai says was very influential to his On'in Kanayōrei. Also, Gimon was in the middle of writing his own treatise on orthography, but it was destroyed in a fire. So that leaves us with another work to look for clues, O/Wo Kyōjūgi 於乎軽重義. This work concerns the difference between /o/ お and /wo/ を, a topic that Norinaga also discussed. It is unknown when it was written, but Gimon died before Shirai was born, so it is impossible that Shirai influenced this work during its creation. And the manuscript that I found actually has comments by Shirai in it, so it must have been very influential to him. The first thing of note is that this manuscript actually references Shirai’s katakana orthography in its chapter titles.


Gimon uses Shirai

I do not know whether this was added by Shirai on subsequent reprints, or if Gimon actually created this orthography first because it is only referenced in the chapter titles, not in the actual contents, but I am going to assume that it was added by Shirai in order to avoid over analysis. As for the content of this work, Gimon discusses the Siddham Script, a South-Asian script which was imported to Japan by Kūkai in 806 CE and is the origin of the gojūon chart. The Siddham script distinguishes between long and short vowels for /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, and /o/. For example, short /a/ and long /aː/ are contrastive. As seen below Gimon notes that this long /uː/ is actually /wu/.


wagyouu vs agyouu 2wagyouu vs agyouu 1

As seen below, the character that he chooses to represent /wu/ is 汙.


Using 汙 for wu

This makes sense as 汙 was pretty popular for representing the Sanskrit long /uː/ phoneme in Chinese transliterations of the Siddham script, as exemplified by Shu-Fen Chen in Vowel Length in Middle Chinese Based on Buddhist Sanskrit Transliterations.

悉曇の長音「う」の音素を中国の悉曇の翻字で表すために「汙」が一般的なのは理解できる。これは陳淑芬の『仏教悉曇翻字基づいた中古音の長短母音』Vowel Length in Middle Chinese Based on Buddhist Sanskrit Transliterationsで示されている。

sanskirt chart

Gimon also provides an explanation on why he doesn’t use 汚, namely that 汙 is more “closed” than 汚.


Why not 汚2Why not 汚

Moving back to On'in Kanayōrei, Shirai explains why he does not use 汙 or 烏, which is from the same rime, as the basis for his kana. This is because their go-on is う and their kan-on is を, which might cause some confusion.


Why not 烏

So overall, Katayama’s usage of 汙 for /wu/ can be seen a direct reflex of the works of Gimon Hōshi, which ultimately comes from the Chinese tradition of writing the Siddham Script with Chinese characters. I suspect that Katayama made Shirai’s /wu/ hiragana う into his /u/ hiragana because it was more common; then, Katayama chose a kana based on 汙 for his /wu/ hiragana in order to follow the tradition, started by Ōda, of using the 于 radical for /wu/. This would explain why Katayama chose 汙 over Shirai’s /u/ hiragana 𛀍 or another kanji in the same rime such as 烏.


Conclusion 結論
Looking back, I think I was correct to be skeptical of only looking at the shape of Katayama’s kana to deduce its origin character. While this may suffice for Heian era kana, by the Meiji era different orthographic traditions based on different rationales led to some highly improbable conclusions on origin characters. For example, the origin character for ウ is nowadays regarded as 宇 and not 宥 as Katayama states. However, when Katayama expressed /we/ with 汙衣, I knew that my old theory could no longer stand. I’m glad that I could establish a timeline on the usage of 汙 for orthography, and how through Gimon, Katayama would come in contact with it. In addition, the kana shape of hiragana /wu/ matches perfectly to the cursive style for 汙. I think the evidence suggests that the origin of Katayama’s /wu/ hiragana is 汙, and thus, I retract my pervious theory.


However, my research in this area has only just begun. How did Katayama’s orthography impact the other orthographies of the time? What exactly is the contents of Gimon Hōshi’s commentary to Norinaga’s Jion Kanazukai? How do Edo Orthographic studies relate to those of the Heian period and those from China? What little clues am I missing in the manuscripts which I have already read? Fortunately, I intend to keep on researching these orthographies, and I will keep you in the loop if I find anything notable. And who knows, maybe I’ll be seeing you next time in my reply to my reply~


English Translation of The Five Poems of Reminiscence 五首述懐の英訳

Before I started to study Classical Japanese, I played a series of games popular in Japan called the Touhou Project (東方Project). They are bullet-hell games that incorporates many Classical East Asian stories. For example, Kaguya, from The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter has a counterpart character within the series. In the fan made English patch of the 7th game of the Touhou Project, Perfect Cherry Blossom, after defeating the final boss, Yuyuko Saigyōji (幽々子西行寺), this text is displayed.

古文の勉強を始める前に、東方Projectと呼ばれる日本で人気のゲームシリーズをプレイした。このゲームはたくさん東アジアを起源とする古典的なストーリーを含む弾幕ゲームである。例えば、シリーズには竹取物語の主人公かぐや姫をモチーフとした「輝夜」というキャラクターが登場する。東方Projectの第7番のゲーム、東方妖々夢~ Perfect Cherry Blossom、ファンが作った英語化パッチは最後のボス(幽々子西行寺)を負かした後、このテキストが現れる。


Remembering the melancholy of human existence
Even ghosts stray from the path of righteousness


Even now I think this is a powerful verse. It reminds me of the Rokujō Lady from the Tale of Genji, who even after death had so much anger in her heart from how Genji treated her, that she murdered three of Genji’s lovers. So naturally when I became interested in Classical Japanese (in part due to the Touhou Project), I wanted to investigate the original text of this poem. However, after seeing it, I quickly realized that this English “translation” is not a translation at all, or even a reinterpretation of the poem; it is a completely separate work. Now, I would like to revisit the original poem in the Japanese version of the game.


The poem was written by Saigyō Hōshi (西行法師), also known by his monk name En'i (円位). He was a late Heian, early Kamakura Japanese poet who lived from 1118 to 1190 (He also was the inspiration for the surname Saigyouji (西行寺) within the Touhou Project mythos). He was born a noble in Kyoto but took religious vows in 1140. His Buddhist values and lifestyle are very often the subject of his poems. He lived in isolation in many places, his favorite of which was Mt. Yoshino (吉野山) in nowadays Nara prefecture. Saigyō’s journeys to Northern Honshu inspired the haiku master Matsuo Bashō to take the same journey, which he depicts in Oku no Hosomichi (おくのほそ道). For Matsuo Bashō considered Saigyō to be the greatest waka poet. To be complimented as the greatest waka poet, by who is considered to be the greatest haiku poet, is no small feat indeed. Fortunately, when I stayed in Nara this summer, I was able to visit Mt. Yoshino and see a recreation of Saigyō’s lodging. Unfortunately, I did not take any photos of it (it was raining quite heavily). This is the only photo that I have from Yoshino which relates to Saigyō, so my apologies.



Saigyō published his poems in his anthology, the Sankashū (山家集). The aforementioned poem from the Touhou Project’s original Japanese text is poem 908 within this anthology. It is part of a series of five poems called The Five Poems of Reminiscence (五首述懐). Because of my relationship with that poem, I decided to attempt translating all five of them into English so that others could enjoy their true meanings. To ensure that the translations were accurate, I recruited my friend from the Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies Classical Japanese class, Michael Zeng, from the University of Washington in St. Louis, to translate these poems into English with me. I would like to thank Michael for working on this project with me; I wouldn’t have been able to do it with you.

西行は山家集という歌集で著した。東方Projectの日本語原文の例の和歌は山家集の908番の和歌である。これは五首述懐と呼ばれる五首の和歌の連作の一首である。私は長い間、西行の歌に興味を持っているので、また他の人が楽しめるように、英訳することを決めた。英訳の正しさを向上させるために、京都アメリカ大学コンソーシアムで古文の授業での同級生で、セントルイス・ワシントン大学の大学生、ソウ マイケルに協力を求めた。マイケルの協力なしでは、英訳を完成させることができなかったので、ここでお礼をいいたい。

Now without further ado, here are some facts about the poems before they are presented. The Five Poems of Reminiscence are poems 908-912 in the Sankashū, but poem 908 also appears in the Shin Kokin Wakashū (新古今和歌集), the eighth anthology of imperially commissioned Japanese poetry, as poem 1829. It is said that poem 908 is a derivative poem from poem 896 of the Senzai Wakashū (千載和歌集), the seventh imperial anthology of Japanese poetry, which itself references poem 645 from the Goshūi Wakashū (後拾遺和歌集), the fourth imperial anthology of Japanese poetry. Poem 909 of the Sankashū is poem 1150 of the Senzai Wakashū. The Five Poems of Reminiscence are each tanka (短歌), but the first line of the poem 912 is a jiamari (字余り).


As for previous translations of Saigyō’s works, the two most prominent are likely Saigyo: Poems of a Mountain Home by Burton Watson (whose student I studied Classical Chinese under), and Awesome Nightfall: The Life, Times, and Poetry of Saigyō by William LaFleur (which is an expansion of his previous novel on Saigyō, Mirror for the Moon). However, neither of these anthologies cover any of The Five Poems of Reminiscence. However, I was able to find translations of poem 908 on the Touhou Wiki [link] and [link].

以前の西行の作品の英訳で一番な有名な本はバートン・ワトソンの「西行:山家の和歌」(Saigyo: Poems of a Mountain Home)(また私はバートン・ワトソンの生徒として、漢文の講義を受けた)とウィリアム・ラフレールの「恐るべし暮れ:西行の生活、時世、和歌」(Awesome Nightfall: The Life, Times, and Poetry of Saigyō)(以前に書かれた西行について本、「月のための鏡」(Mirror for the Moon)の改訂版)。しかしながら、どの本も五首述懐の和歌に触れていない。しかし、908番の和歌の英訳は東方ウィキ[リンク]と[リンク]で見つけることができる。

Now, for the moment you have all been waiting for, Michael and I proudly present our translations of The Five Poems of Reminiscence.


The Five Poems of Reminiscence
By Saigyō Hōshi

I would have died
Without fathoming
The sorrows of the body
Were this a world,
From which I could not withdraw

身の憂さを 思ひ知らでや 罷みなまし 背く習の なき世なりせば

Even as a priest,
At what place
Could I find solitude
Were there no deep mountains
In this sorrowful world

いづくにか 身を隠さまし 厭ひても 憂き世に深き 山なかりせば

This mountain village,
Where I have chosen to hide
The sorrows of my body,
It is because of my priest heart
That I must live here

身の憂さの 隠家にせん 山里は 心ありてぞ 住むべかりける

Tear drops
That know the pathos of the world
Have spilled down my cheek.
That is the reason why
I thatched this grass hut

あはれ知る なみだの露ぞ こぼれける 草の庵を むすぶ契は

Since a static body
Does not suit a
Restless heart,
No matter how I feel
How could I even do it?

浮れ出づる 心は身にも 叶はねば 如何なりとても 如何にかはせん

Tale of Two Korean Interpretations of Man’yoshu Poem 9 万葉集九番歌:韓国語での二通りの解釈の物語

Introduction 紹介
This summer I stayed in Takatori Town and commuted to Doshisha University where I studied Classical Japanese in the Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies program led by Columbia University. In Takatori, one of the friends I made who worked at the local tourism center handed me this.



While it was just a simple kind-hearted gesture, I was surprised by the coincidence that heroine was Princess Nukata. Now rewind to winter, when I visited the Nara Prefecture Complex of Man'yo Culture in Asuka Village to listen to a lecture on the Man’yōshū. There, I took this picture.



While it may not be clear what it is (my apologies, I did not intend to post these image), this is a map of Japan with the names of the writers of the Man’yōshū placed by where they wrote their poems. You may note that in the photo of the map on the left, the author for which I took the photo was Princess Nukata.


I also visited Muro Hot Springs in Wakayama, where Princess Nukata supposedly wrote Man’yōshū poem 9, to try to have a better understanding of where she was when she wrote that poem.



So why did I have this obsession with Princess Nukata? Was I drawn to her famous beauty and fantastic writing just as Prince Ōama once had? Well, yes and no. In fall of the prior year, I was looking for a topic of potential research (ironic how this fall I am doing the same). And I was reminded of an article by Avery Morrow I had read many years prior when I was just starting to learn about the Man’yōshū and classical Japanese. This article, The Undecipherable Poem, No. 9 of the Manyoshu [link], introduces poem #9 from the Man’yōshū and discusses the difficulty in deciphering it. Seeking support for my research, I reached out to my school’s librarian, and learned that in fact, her mother was a researcher of man’yōgana (the orthography of the Man’yōshū) focusing specifically on the poems from Ki (紀伊), her hometown. Her mother noted that there was no definite translation of the poem. The librarian gave me a modern version of the Man’yōshū, and also, another book called Another Man’yōshū (もう一つの万葉集). This book, written by Lee Young Hee, was also mentioned in Morrow’s article. Simply, the novel attempts to read several poems in the Man’yōshū in Old Korean, but the librarian’s mother noted that this book was not very academically acclaimed. But nevertheless, this was most certainly worth investigating!

どうして私は額田王にこれほど惹かれるのだろう?大海人皇子が惹かれたように、私も額田王の美と素敵な短歌に惹かれているのだろうか?確かにそうかもしれない。去年の秋に研究できそうなテーマを探していた際、数年前に古文や万葉集を勉強し始めた時に読んだアベリー・モローの記事を思い出した。「解釈できない歌、万葉集の九番歌 」[リンク]The Undecipherable Poem, No. 9 of the Manyoshu)という記事で、万葉集の九番歌を紹介し、その解釈の難しさを説明している。私は九番歌についての知識を深める為に、私の大学の図書館員に連絡した。すると、その図書館員のお母さんが紀伊、郷土、の万葉仮名(万葉集の綴り)の研究者であることが分かった。彼女は、万葉集九番歌に関しては決定的な翻訳がないと教えてくれた。次に、図書館員は私に「現代日本語の万葉集」と「もう一つの万葉集」という本を勧めてくれた。実は、李寧煕(イ・ヨンヒ)の「もう一つの万葉集」はモローの記事で紹介されている。この本は万葉集の数短歌を古代韓国語で読解しようと試みているが、紀伊の研究者によると、学会ではこの本があまり賞賛されていないそうだ。しかしながら、この本を読んでみる必要があると思った。

Nukata no Ōkimi 額田王
For a quick summary of Nukata no Ōkimi’s life, I recommend reading the website of the pamphlet I was given, which can be found at [link]. Though perhaps some may find it too childish, I thought it was cute and informative (though I also enjoyed Genji Fantasy: The Cat Fell in Love With Hikaru Genji at the Uji Genji Monotagari Museum, which my friends and professor described as “quite cheesy”). But to summarize her life, Nukata no Ōkimi, also known as Lady Nukata or Princess Nukada, was an Asuka period poet born to Prince Kagami in about 630 CE. She married Emperor Tenmu and bore him a daughter, Princess Tōchi. It is said that Emperor Tenchi was also interested in Lady Nukata, but there is not much evidence for this. One of her poems rallied the Japanese troops to support the Korean kingdom of Baekje (it fell regardless); another described how she felt when the capital moved to Ōmi and she had to leave Asuka. Thirteen of her poems appear in the Man’yōshū and some of these appear in the Shinchokusen Wakashū and the Shinshūi Wakashū. There is also speculation that she had Korean origins, even before any modern Korean reading of her poems.


While the verifiable information on her life may be barebones, the stories about Princess Nukata are anything but. Her beauty was said to be legendary. In fact, there’s a (not credible) theory that the Jinshin War started because of a love triangle between the two princes over Princess Nukata’s heart. And perhaps naturally this alluringly mysterious woman also wrote one alluringly mysterious poem.


Man’yōshū Poem 9 万葉集の九番歌
Man’yōshū Book 1 Poem 9, written by Princess Nukata, is generally considered the most enigmatic poem of the Man’yōshū. It’s preface is 幸于紀温泉之時額田王作歌 translated by Alexander Vovin as “A poem composed by Princess Nukata when the Empress went to the hot spring in K ï[yi province]”. The mentioned hot spring is thought to be Muro hot spring in Wakayama Prefecture. The reason that there is no kana in this preface is because it is written in kanbun (a complex mix of Classical Chinese and Japanese) and because the Man’yōshū predates the creation of kana. However, the Man’yōshū was also written in an orthography where kanji was used for its phonetic value rather than its semantic, called man’yōgana (万葉仮名). This is analogous to modern day ateji (当て字). Here a chart of many of these kanji.



But this system is much more complex because particles and conjugations are elided. Some man’yōgana are based on their on’yomi, called shakuon (借音仮名) and some are based on their kun’yomi, called shakukun (借訓仮名). Some man’yōgana can even have multiple readings. Man’yōgana is juxtaposed against mana (真名), which are Chinese characters used for their semantic value, with an assigned reading, just like modern day kanji. Fortunately, these poems were transcribed in kana during the Heian period, so we can now read and enjoy them. Poems written in man’yōgana are analogous to 25 Korean hyangga (향가 鄕歌), which are poems written in Korean represented by a complex system of Chinese characters, called hyangchal (향찰 鄕札). However, hyangga were not all transcribed in hangul and thus interpretation remains a difficult task (and an excellent area of research).

この綴りは助詞と活用がないので複雑だ。音読みに基づく万葉仮名は借音仮名と呼ばれ、訓読みに基づく万葉仮名は借訓仮名と呼ばれる。また、万葉仮名は幾つかの読み方があり、これは真名と区別される。真名は現代の漢字と同じように、漢字が意味に沿って使用され、後で読みが充てられたものだ。幸いなことに、平安時代に万葉仮名の歌は仮名で写されたので、現在でもこの歌を楽しんで読むことができる。また万葉仮名で書かれた歌は韓国の25首のヒャンガ(향가 鄕歌)に類似している。25首のヒャンガはヒャンチャル(향찰 鄕札)と呼ばれる漢字の複雑なシステムの綴りで書かれた歌だ。しかし、ヒャンガはハングルで書き写されなかったので、解釈が難しいとされている(また研究が進んでいない分野でもある)。

So, in all its glory, here is Man’yōshū poem 9 (from The University of Virginia’s Japanese Text Initiative),



Now, if we have the kana readings for poem 9, why is it so difficult to interpret? This is because the kana readings among the manuscripts are in conflict with each other. Here is a modern day Man’yōshū’s take on the poem (spoiler alert, it doesn’t even attempt to translate it).




I have also read two other modern Man’yōshū editions wherein neither attempt to translate it. If you want to see possible interpretations by Japanese scholars here is a list of interpretations.



For a western perspective, here is a translation done by the Waka Poetry website [link].

また、西洋アカデミアの視点として、Waka Poetryサイトの翻訳[リンク]を興味があれば見てほしい。

As for the end of the poem, it is considered that the last three lines are properly transcribed in kana and are something along the lines of “我(わ)が背子(せこ)がい立(た)たせりけむ厳橿(いつかし)が本(もと) “My dear one Stood, no doubt, At the foot of the sacred oak!” (from Waka Poetry), but even this is disputed.


Korean Interpretation 1: Lee Young Hee’s 韓国語の解釈1番:李寧煕の解釈
From my research, the first attempt to read this poem in Old Korean was Lee Young Hee’s 1990 book, Another Man’yōshū (もう一つの万葉集). Information about her and her research can be found at [link]. The book attempts to read nine poems in the Man’yōshū, including poem 9, in Korean. Her book was so intriguing that, a New York Times article was written about it [link]. The book... wasn’t too well received in Japan. In fact, a book titled The Man’yōshū cannot be deciphered using Sillan or Korean (新・朝鮮語で万葉集は解読できない) was written as in response a year later. There are also negative response articles such as [link] and [link]. A common criticism is that Lee does not consider Japanese and Korean phonetic changes when interpreting the text as Korean. One of these changes is [p-] > [h-] (Old Japanese は was pronounced as [pa], unlike the modern-day pronunciation [ha]). Another criticism is that there is no reason to interpret the poem as Korean specifically. Why not in Chinese? Or why not in English? I couldn’t help but chuckle when, as a rebuttal, one of these articles noted that reading the word Man’yōshū in English would sound something like “Man-yours-show”, “Show me your man”. And while I think these criticisms ultimately dismantle Lee’s theories, I want to acknowledge the significance of her research to Koreo-Japonic Studies and juxtapose her theory to another’s.

私の知る限りでは、李寧煕の1990年の著書「もう一つ万葉集」が、古代韓国語で九番歌を解読しようと試みた初めの研究である。李寧煕と彼女の研究に関する情報は[リンク]で見つけられる。この著書は万葉集に載っている万葉集九番を含む九首の歌を韓国語で読解しようとしている。ニューヨーク・タイムズがその著書について記事[リンク]を書いたほど、この著書は興味深い。しかしながら、この本は日本であまり評価されなかった。実際のところ出版された翌年に、彼女の本に対する反応として「新・朝鮮語で万葉集は解読できない」という著書も出版されている。また、彼女の本を批判する記事も書かれている。例えば、[リンク][リンク]だ。多くの批評家は李が韓国語でテキストを解釈する時に、日本語と韓国語の音声学的な音変化を考慮していないことを指摘している。例えば、[p-] > [h-](古代日本語で「は」を[pa](ぱ)として発音して、現代日本語で「は」を[ha](は)として発音する)など。他の批評家は、この歌を特別に韓国語で解釈する理由がないことを指摘している。彼らはどうして中国語で解釈しないのだろう、あるいは、どうして英語で解釈しないのだろう、と疑問を投げかけている。ある記事は「万葉集」の言葉を英語で読むと、意味が[Show me your man](男性を見せなさい)のようだと述べていて、少し私自身も戸惑った。私はこれらの反論が李の解釈を覆すと考えるけれど、研究自体の重要性を認識し、李の解釈と他の解釈を比較したいと思う。

To summarize her interpretation, she claims that the poem can be read in two different ways, the “outer interpretation” is about the creation of the capital in Asuka Okamoto no Miya by Empress Kōgyoku. The “inner interpretation” is a rather graphic depiction of Princess Nukata’s love life with either Emperor Tenmu or Emperor Tenchi.


To talk about Lee’s theories, first I want to specify that eumdok (音讀) and hundok (訓讀) are the Korean terms for on’yomi and kun’yomi (it has been theorized that Japan took these concepts from Korea). For the most part, Lee uses standard contemporary eumdok and hundok readings, so I will specify if I cannot confirm that specific reading. But besides checking the readings and adding the English glosses, all of these ideas come directly from Lee. I was unable to confirm the meanings she claimed certain old Korean words had, nor was I able to comment on the supposed Gyeongsang dialect assertions. The Japanese term gikun (義訓) signifies non-standard readings of a character, usually of a somewhat similar word, and usually for dramatic effect.


Overall, I translated Lee’s “outer interpretation” as “Surround the castle with lakeside paradises! Dogeza to the castle! Come! As the castle is still standing, let’s visit it countless times!”

李の「表向きの意味」の現代日本語訳は「水郷(みずごおり) 廻(めぐ)らせよ 大城(こにさし)に 拝謁(はいえつ)せよ 来(き)たれ 城(しろ)立(た)ちにけりに 行(ゆ)き来(き)せむ 幾度(いくたび)」だ。

Original Text 原文Korean Interpretation 韓国語の解釈Contemporary Korean Broad Phonetic Transcription (IPA) 現代韓国語の音声表記(IPA)Old Japanese 古代大日本語English 英語Notes 注釈
莫囂매홀mɛ.hol水郷(みずごおり)[with] lakeside paradises• 매 (mɛ) comes from the eumdok of 莫 which is 맥 (mɛk) (cannot confirm)
• 홀 (hol) comes from the eumdok of 囂 which is 효 (hʲo)
• 囂 can also be read as 골 (kol), which also means township (cannot confirm)

• 매 (mɛ)は莫の音読み、맥 (mɛk)、に由来する(正当性を確認できない)
• 홀 (hol)は囂の音読み、효 (hʲo)に由来する
• 囂は골 (kol)でも読める、郷の意味(正当性を確認できない)
円隣之동글리지toŋ.kɯl.ɾi.tɕi廻(めぐ)らせよSurround [the castle]• 동글 (toŋ.kɯl) comes from the hundok of 円 which is 둥글 (toŋ.kɯl)
• 리 (ɾi) comes from the eumdok of 隣 which is 린 (ɾin)
• The eumdok of 之 is 지 (tɕi)

• 동글 (toŋ.kɯl)は円の訓読み、둥글 (toŋ.kɯl)、に由来する
• 리 (ɾi)は隣の音読み、린 (ɾin)に由来する
• 之の音読みは지 (tɕi)
大相七兄큰사시에kʰɯɕi.e大城(こにさし)にTo the Big Castle• The hundok of 大 is 큰 (kʰɯn)
• 사 (sa) comes from the eumdok of 相 which is 상 (saŋ)
• 시 (ɕi) comes from the on’yomi of 七 which is しち (시치) (ɕi.tɕi)
• 에(e) comes from the kun’yomi of 兄 which is え (e)

• 大の訓読みは큰 (kʰɯn)
• 사 (sa)は相の音読み、상 (saŋ)に由来する
• 시 (ɕi)は七の日本語の音読み、しち (시치) (ɕi.tɕi)、に由来する
• 에(e)は兄の日本語の訓読み、え (e)
爪謁氣조아리게 tɕo.a.ɾi.ke拝謁(はいえつ)せよDozega• The eumdok of 爪 is 조 (tɕo)
• The eumdok of 謁 is 알 (al)
• 게 (ke) comes from the kun’yomi of 氣 which is け₂ (ke) (Frellesvig and Whitman’s Reconstruction)
• 조알게 (tɕ is Gyeongsang dialect for 조아리게 (tɕo.a.ɾ

• 爪の音読みは조 (tɕo)
• 謁の音読みは알 (al)
• 게 (ke)は氣の日本語の訓読み、け₂ (ke)、に由来する(フレレスビッグとホイットマンの再建)
• 조알게 (tɕは東南方言で조아리게 (tɕo.a.ɾを意味する
吾瀬오라o.ɾa来(き)たれCome• The eumdok of 吾 is 오 (o)
• The eumdok of 瀬 is 뢰 (ɾʷe)
• 오뢰 (o.ɾʷe) is Gyeongsang dialect for 오라 (o.ɾa)

• 吾の音読みは오 (o)
• 瀬の音読みは뢰 (ɾʷe)
• 오뢰 (o.ɾʷe)は東南方言で오라 (o.ɾa)を意味する
子之잣이tɕaɕ.i城(しろ)がThe castle• The eumdok of 子 is 자 (tɕa)
• The on’yomi of 之 is し (시) (ɕi)
• These readings combine to produce 잣이 (tɕaɕ.i)

• 子の音読みは자 (tɕa)
• 之の日本語の音読みはし (시) (ɕi)
• この読みは交え、잣이 (tɕaɕ.i)になる
射立為兼서있으니 sʌ.is͈.ɯ.ni立(た)ちにけりにIs standing• The hundok of 射 is 쏠 (s͈ol)
• 이 (i) comes from the eumdok of 立 which is 입 (ip)
• The reading 써 (s͈ʌ) is a gikun for 為
• 써 (s͈ʌ) is Gyeongsang dialect for 쓰 (s͈ɯ) or 씨 (ɕ͈i)
• 까네 (k͈ comes from the kun’yomi of 兼 which is かね.る (kane.ɾu)
• 쏘있이까네 (s͈͈.i.k͈ is Gyeongsang dialect for 서있으니 (sʌ.is͈.ɯ.ni)

• 射の訓読みは쏠 (s͈ol)
• 이 (i)は立の音読み、입 (ip)、に由来する
• 써 (s͈ʌ)は為の義訓
• 써 (s͈ʌ)は東南方言で쓰 (s͈ɯ)か씨 (ɕ͈i)を意味する
• 까네 (k͈は兼の訓読み、かね.る (kane.ɾu)に由来する
• 쏘있이까네 (s͈͈.i.k͈は東南方言で서있으니 (sʌ.is͈.ɯ.ni)を意味する
五可新오가세o.ka.se行(ゆ)き来(き)せむLet’s go and come back• The eumdok of 五 is 오 (o)
• The eumdok of 可 is 가 (ka)
• The hundok of 新 is새 (sɛ), which is equivalent to 세 (se)

• 五の音読みは오 (o)
• 可の音読みは가 (ga)
• 新の訓読みは새 (sɛ)、この音は세 (se)の同じ
何本여러번jʌ.ɾʌ.pʌn幾度(いくたび)Countless times• The hundok 何 is 여러 (jʌ.ɾʌ) (cannot confirm)
• The eumdok of 本 is 본 (pon), which is equivalent to 번 (pʌn)

• 何の訓読みは여러 (jʌ.ɾʌ)(正当性を確認できない)
• 本の音読みは본 (pon), この音は번 (pʌn)の同じ

The same process I applied to the “outer interpretation” I will now apply to the “inner interpretation”, except that I will not be translating it into English. I find her interpretation a bit too distasteful to flat out write in English on this blog. And once again, this is directly from her book.


Original Text 原文Korean Interpretation 韓国語の解釈Contemporary Korean Broad Phonetic Transcription (IPA) 現代韓国語の音声表記(IPA)Old Japanese 古代大日本語Notes 注釈
莫囂마개(麻稭)ma.kɛ麻具(まぐ)• The eumdok of 莫 is 막 (mak)
• Removing the final consonant, 막 (mak) becomes 마 (ma) which is the eumdok of 麻
• The eumdok of 囂 is 효 (hʲo)
• 마개 (ma.kɛ) is Gyeongsang dialect for 마경 (麻茎) (ma.kʲʌŋ) which comes from 막효 (mak.hʲo)

• 莫の音読みは막 (mak)
• パッチム(末子音)を除くと、막 (mak)は마 (ma)になり、 마 (ma)は麻の音読み
• 囂の音読みは효 (hʲo)
• 마개 (ma.kɛ)は東南方言で마경 (麻茎) (ma.kʲʌŋ)を意味し、마개は막효 (mak.hʲo)に由来する
円隣之동글리지toŋ.kɯl.ɾi.tɕi廻(まわ)せよ• 동글 (toŋ.kɯl) comes from the hundok of 円 which is 둥글 (toŋ.kɯl)
• 리 (ɾi) comes from the eumdok of 隣 which is 린 (ɾin)
• The eumdok of 之 is 지 (tɕi)

• 동글 (toŋ.kɯl)は円の訓読み、둥글 (toŋ.kɯl)、に由来する
• 리 (ɾi)は隣の音読み、린 (ɾin)、に由来する
• 之の音読みは지 (tɕi)
大相七兄큰샅이의kʰɯn.sat.i.ɰi~e大股の• The hundok of 大 is 큰 (kʰɯn)
• 사 (sa) comes from the eumdok of 相 which is 상 (saŋ)
• 치 (tɕʰi) comes from the eumdok of 七 which is 칠 (tɕʰil)
• 샅이 (sat.i) comes from 사치 (sa.tɕʰi)
• The kun’yomi of 兄 is え (에) (e), which is one of the ways in which 의 (ɰi) is pronounced contemporaneously

• 大の訓読みは큰 (kʰɯn)
• 사 (sa)は相の音読み、상 (saŋ)、に由来する
• 치 (tɕʰi)は七の音読み、칠 (tɕʰil)、に由来する
• 샅이 (sat.i)は사치 (sa.tɕʰi)に由来する
• 兄の日本語の訓読みはえ (에) (e)で、現代では의 (ɰi)が에 (e)と発音できる
爪謁氣좆알게tɕ麻具(まぐ)を識らせよ• 좆 (tɕot) comes from the eumdok of 爪 which is 조 (tɕo)
• The eumdok of 謁 is 알 (al)
• 게 (ke) comes from the kun’yomi of 氣 which is け₂ (ke) (Frellesvig and Whitman’s Reconstruction)

• 좆 (tɕot)は爪の音読み、조 (tɕo)、に由来する
• 謁の音読みは알 (al)
• 게 (ke)は氣の日本語の訓読み、け₂ (ke)、に由来する (フレレスビッグとホイットマンの再建)
吾瀬오라o.ɾa来たれ• The eumdok of 吾 is 오 (o)
• The eumdok of 瀬 is 뢰 (ɾʷe)
• 오뢰 (o.ɾʷe) is Gyeongsang dialect for 오라 (o.ɾa)

• 吾の音読みは오 (o)
• 瀬の音読みは뢰 (ɾʷe)
• 오뢰 (o.ɾʷe)は東南方言で오라 (o.ɾa)を意味する
子之자지tɕa.tɕi麻具(まぐ)• The eumdok of 子 is 자 (tɕa)
• The eumdok of 之 is 지 (tɕi)

• 子の音読みは자 (tɕa)
• 之の音読みは지 (tɕi)
射立為兼서있으니sʌ.is͈.ɯ.ni立ちにけりに• The hundok of 射 is 쏠 (s͈ol)
• 이 (i) comes from the eumdok of 立 which is 입 (ip)
• The reading 써 (s͈ʌ) is a gikun for 為
• 써 (s͈ʌ) is Gyeongsang dialect for 쓰 (s͈ɯ) or 씨 (ɕ͈i)
• 까네 (k͈ comes from the kun’yomi of 兼 which is かね.る (kane.ɾu)
• 쏘있이까네 (s͈͈.i.k͈ is Gyeongsang dialect for 서있으니 (sʌ.is͈.ɯ.ni)

• 射の訓読みは쏠 (s͈ol)
• 이 (i)は立の音読み、입 (ip)、に由来する
• 써 (s͈ʌ)は為の義訓
• 써 (s͈ʌ)は東南方言で쓰 (s͈ɯ)か씨 (ɕ͈i)を意味する
• 까네 (k͈は兼の訓読み、かね.る (kane.ɾu)、に由来する
• 쏘있이까네 (s͈͈.i.k͈は東南方言で서있으니 (sʌ.is͈.ɯ.ni)を意味する
五可新 오가세o.ka.se行き来せむ• The eumdok of 五 is 오 (o)
• The eumdok of 可 is 가 (ka)
• The hundok of 新 is새 (sɛ), which is equivalent to 세 (se)

• 五の音読みは오 (o)
• 可の音読みは가 (ka)
• 新の訓読みは새 (sɛ)、この音は세 (se)と同じ
何本여러번jʌ.ɾʌ.pʌn幾度(たび)• The hundok 何 is 여러 (jʌ.ɾʌ) (cannot confirm)
• The eumdok of 本 is 본 (pon), which is equivalent to 번 (pʌn)

• 何の訓読みは여러 (jʌ.ɾʌ) (正当性を確認できない)
• 本の音読みは본 (pon), この音は번 (pʌn)と同じ

Looking at these two interpretations, I think their stark contrast demonstrates how this method of reading the Man’yōshū in Korean is not credible. I also think that finding “results” by utilizing this method in eight other poems also is suggestive that this is not a productive method. Finally, by not considering phonetic changes, this reading of the Man’yōshū in modern day Korean is comparable to reading it as English. So overall, even if I find this idea intriguing, I do not find her argument convincing in the slightest.


However, after she explains her theories, Lee notes the various historical interpretations of this poem and claims that they are all incorrect as they did not know that this poem was written in Korean... but maybe these people knew more than we thought.


Korean Interpretation 2: Alexander Vovin’s 韓国語の解釈2番:アレキサンダー・ボビンの解釈

Alexander Vovin, director of studies at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, is one of the most prolific writers on historical Japanese linguistics working today. If he were to attempt to read Man’yōshū poem 9 in Korean, overlooking linguistic developments would not be an issue. But how could he get around the issue that we demonstrated by reading the word “man’yōshū” in English? His solution was to compare the Old Korean interpretation with that of the pre-modern scholars. The main scholar in question is Sengaku (仙覚), a Kamakura monk who wrote the first currently existing commentary on the Man’yōshū, titled the Man’yōshū Chūshaku (萬葉集註釋). This commentary has been invaluable for understanding Man’yōshū poems. But first, let’s look at the preface and then glossing of poem 9 in the Genryaku kōhon (元暦校本) manuscript of the Man’yōshū.

フランスの社会科学高等研究院の重役のアレキサンダー・ボビンは歴史的日本語学の多作家のうちの一人である。もし彼が万葉集の九番歌を韓国語で読めば、音声楽的変化を見落とさなかっただろう。では、英語で「万葉集」の言葉を読む際に生じる問題はどう防ぐことができるのか?(ある記事は「万葉集」の言葉を英語で読むと、意味が[Show me your man](男性を見せなさい)のようだと述べていて、少し私自身も戸惑った。)この問いに対するボビンの答えは現代以前の学者の解釈とボビン自身の古代韓国語の解釈を比べることである。万葉集の現代以前の学者は現存で一番古い万葉集の解説である「萬葉集註釋」を執筆した鎌倉時代の学問僧、仙覚である。この解釈は万葉集の歌を理解するためにとても貴重なものとなっている。まず始めに、元暦校本万葉集の九番歌の詞書とグロスを見よう。


Vovin translates this preface as “A poem composed by Princess Nukata when the Empress went to the hot spring in K ï[yi province]”.


As for the glossing of the first two lines, it is 莫ユフツキノアフキキトヒシ. On appearance, these obviously cannot be readings of those character. They are not the kun’yomi nor the on’yomi of them. Also, it's ironic that Lee has this exact glossing in her book.



Now let’s look at Sengaku’s own commentary on the poem.



Vovin translates it as “Evening moon is the moon of the thirteenth [and] fourteenth day evenings. As for the expression i-tat-as-er-u kane, i is an initial interjection. The meaning of the composed poem is: ‘I asked looking up at my beloved like at the evening moon: My beloved are you going out on a journey? When shall we meet?’ It was the first poem to which [I], an old fool, [added] ‘new glossings.’ Among all 152 poems with ‘new glossings’, this is a poem to which [I] added a detailed commentary. [Otherwise, how] the people who want to know the exact meaning can discover [it]?”


While the last sentence doesn’t directly imply that the poem is not in Japanese, if it was in another language, Sengaku’s statement would certainly apply.


But now to move onto the actual Korean interpretation, I was able to verify the meaning of these Middle Korean words in A dictionary of the Korean language of the Yi dynasty period (李朝語辭典) by Yu Changton (劉昌惇). While the characters of this poem are mostly consistent, the Koyō ryaku ruijū shō (古葉略類聚鈔) manuscript from the Kamakura period has 器 instead of 囂. Vovin claims that 器 was the original character because its fits better phonetically with his interpretation.


For analyzing this poem, I want to reintroduce the words mana, shakon, and shakukun. While I would prefer to use Korean terminology, I do not know if such terminology exists. The Early Middle Chinese reconstruction is from Pulleyblank’s Lexicon of reconstructed pronunciation in early Middle Chinese, late Middle Chinese, and early Mandarin.

借音は借音仮名の略語、また借訓は借訓仮名の略語だ。前期中古音の再建は「前期中古音と後期中古音と近古音の前期中古音は再建した発音の辞書」(Lexicon of reconstructed pronunciation in early Middle Chinese, late Middle Chinese, and early Mandarin)に由来している。

Original Text 原文Middle Korean 中期朝鮮語Modern Japanese 現代日本語English 英語Middle Korean Reconstruction (Vovin) 中期朝鮮語の再建(ボビン)Early Middle Chinese 前期中古音Notes (parenthesis indicate IPA broad transcription of contemporary Korean) 注釈(パーレンが現代韓国語の音声表記(IPA)を示す)
莫器나조ᄀᆞᄉᅠ夕べのevening (genitive)nacokʌsmak khih (古代中国語(シュスラー) khɨs)• 莫 and 器 are shakuon

• 莫と器は借音
圓隣ᄃᆞᆯ라리 moontʌrariwian lin• 圓 is a mana for the Old Korean origin of두렙.다 (tuɾep.ta) (to be round)

• 圓は古代韓国語の두렙.다 (tuɾep.ta) (丸い)に由来する真名
之大相티다포仰ぐlook uptʰitapotɕi/tɕɨ da'/dajh sɨaŋ• 之 and 大 are shakuon
• 相 is a shakukun for the Old Korean origin of 보.다 (po.ta) (to see)

• 之と大は借音
• 相は古代韓国語の보.다 (po.ta) (見る)に由来する借訓
七兄爪ㄴ[이]이시아자 いる後exist (after)n[i]isyatshit xwianjŋ tʂaɨw'/tʂɛːw’• 七 is a shakukun of닐곱 (nil.kop) (7 in Middle Korean) with the second syllable truncated (similar to the Japanese usage of 七 as a shakuon for な)
• 兄 is a shakukun wherein its reading is known from being transcribed in the Goryeo language with 奢 (Early Middle Chinese reading ɕia)
• 爪 is a shakuon

• 七は닐곱(nil.kop) (中期朝鮮語の七) の二つの音節を消した借訓 (日本語の借訓、七が、「な」として使用したことが同じ)
• 兄は借訓、兄の古代韓国語の読みは高麗語で奢(前期中古音 ɕia)を写したことから知られた
• 爪は借音
謁氣묻게問うaskmutkeʔɨat kʰɨjʰ• 謁 is a shakukun for the Old Korean origin of 묻.다 (mut.ta) (to ask)
• 氣 is a shakuon

• 謁は古代韓国語の묻.다 (mut.ta) (問う) に由来する借訓
• 氣は借音

This yields the translation of the first two lines “After [I] looked up at the evening moon, [I] did ask:”


From various Man’yōshū manuscripts, Vovin claims that the last three lines are read as わがせこ₁がいたたしけ₁むいつかにひ₁がほ₁.


This yields the entire translation to be “(1/2) After [I] looked up at the evening moon, [I] did ask: (3) ‘My beloved (4) probably went there [on a journey]. (5) When [would I see his face] again?’”

そのため、全体の翻訳は「(一・二) 夕月を仰いだ後、問うた(三)我が背子(恋人)が(四)[旅に]立つだろう(五)何時か又[顔を見る]」である。

As for its meaning, Vovin suggests that her beloved in this poem to be Prince Ōama.


Linguistically, Vovin’s explanation for why these Chinese characters were chosen to represent these Korean sounds makes sense. I didn’t provide all of the exact developments, but Vovin has explanations for every phone, most if not all of them are convincing. Overall, I personally do not know any more information that would support or reject his explanations. Comparing the Korean translation to Sengaku’s reading, I think the evidence suggests that the first two lines of this poem were written in Old Korean.


Things to consider 銘記
As much as I agree with Vovin, I still think it’s important to acknowledge potential biases for both of these interpretations. The relationship between Japan and Korea is extremely complex with nationalism on both sides, especially in academia. As for Lee, her entire academic career has been based on the assertion that Japanese language and culture originate from Korea. Some even call her a Korean supremacist. To suggest a poem in the oldest Japanese poetry anthology is so explicit that I refuse to write its English meaning, is bound to anger people regardless of the evidence or lack thereof. As for Vovin, he is a staunch opponent to the genetic relationship of Korean and Japanese. He explains his skepticism in his book Koreo-Japonica: A Re-evaluation of a Common Genetic Origin. Also, he may have read Sengaku’s translation before reading the poem in Korean, and thus may have subconsciously primed himself to translate it in that way.

私はボビンに賛成するけれど、両者の解釈の偏見を認識することも大切だと思う。日韓関係は双方の強い国家主義が影響して、特に学術界では、とても複雑になっている。李のこれまでの研究は、日本語と日本文化が韓国に由来することを前提としたものである。そのために彼女のことを朝鮮純血主義だという人もいる。最も古い日本の和歌集の歌の意味を、現代日本語訳で書くことが憚られるほど、彼女の解釈が過激であるから(証拠があるかどうかにかかわらず)、人々は信じないであろう。ボビンに関しては、韓国語と日本語の遺伝関係がないと信じている。彼は自身の著書、「日韓母語:共通の遺伝の起源の再評価」(Koreo-Japonica: A Re-evaluation of a Common Genetic Origin)で韓国語と日本語、双方の遺伝的由来の疑いを説明している。また彼は韓国語でこの歌を読む以前に、既に仙覚の解釈を読んでいただろう。そのため、おそらく仙覚の解釈よりに読んだのだろう。

Conclusion 結論
Back to my story, I found out about Vovin’s Korean interpretation from his new (at the time) book, Man'yoshu: A New English Translation Containing the Original Text, Kana Transliteration, Romanization, Glossing and Commentary (Book 1). It was released in 2017, but his research on the topic goes back to an article he wrote in 2002 titled An Old Korean Text in the Manyoshu. He massively improved his evidence from the article to the book, and I highly recommend checking out his translation of the Man’yōshū book 1 for that explanation alone. However, I was surprised that Vovin never referenced Lee’s work. Perhaps he never knew about her? Perhaps he didn’t want to associate his work with hers? But even if he didn’t address it, I think that these two interpretations beg to be juxtaposed as they have such similar intentions, but radically different methodologies. I never ended up writing my paper because I couldn’t find any way to add new information to the conversation. However, I’m sure there’s something there, either linguistically or socially, and I implore you to take a look at this very peculiar poem. I also recommend looking into hyangga, as it's still relatively unexplored (at least in English), I think. But looking past articles and academia, I think there’s something nice about a poem that crosses the Eastern Sea. That even with all of the political problems in East Asia, there was a time, not too long ago, where a beautiful, brilliant, woman composed a verse in two tongues, and it was celebrated to the extent of immortalization. And now, once again, it’s true form, can be understood.

話を元に戻すと、私は「万葉集の第一巻:原文・仮名・ローマ字・グロス・解説含む新英語の翻訳」(Man'yoshu: A New English Translation Containing the Original Text, Kana Transliteration, Romanization, Glossing and Commentary (Book 1))という、ボビンの新しい(その時に新しかった)著書から、彼の韓国語の解釈を見つけた。この本は2017年に出版されたけれど、彼のこのトピックに関する研究は2002年に書かれた、「万葉集の中の古代韓国語のテキスト」 (An Old Korean Text in the Manyoshu) といる記事に遡る。最初の記事の執筆から著書の出版する際には、自身の主張をサポートする証拠の質が向上していた。特に九番歌の解釈の説明に関しては、彼の万葉集の第一巻の翻訳を勧める(今のところ日本語の翻訳はない。また、私はボビンが李の研究について言及してなくて、驚いた。もしかして、彼は李について知らなかったのかも知らない。またボビンは李の研究を自分の研究と結びつけたくなかったのだろうかとも思う。彼が李の研究を言及しなかったけれど、ボビンと李の二つの解釈は、似たような意図を持ちながら、違う方法論を展開しているため、二つを比べる必要があるだろう。私はこれらの論議に加えられるような新しい情報を見つけられなかったため、記事を書き終えられなかった。しかし、語学的に、または社会的に、絶対に何かがあると思って、この面白い歌を多くの人に読んでもらいたいと願う。また未だに深く研究がなされていない(英語でさえ)ヒャンガに注目することも勧める。しかしながら、過去の記事や学会を顧みると、この九番歌が日本海に越えたということがすばらしいと思う。東アジア地域では、政治の問題は沢山あるけれど、ほど遠くない昔に存在した美しく輝かしい女性が、二つの言語でこの歌を詠んだ。そして、その歌が不滅になるほど、祝われた時代があった。そして、もう一度、この歌の本当の意味が理解される時が来るだろう。